Apr 132022
 
The year is 2022. For the third time, a Le Pen is proceeding to the run-off for the French presidency. And unlike 2002 (when her father stood) and 2017, Marine Le Pen has a chance to win this time.

Without doubt, a Le Pen presidency would upend French, European, and even global politics. This is why (depending on individual predispositions) everyone is so excited, worried, or even joyful about it. For the next ten days, everyone in the west will turn into a (part-time) France-watcher and expert, unless that person happens to be German, in which case another round of navel-gazing is in order.

Jean-Marie LE PEN - Cannes - 17 décembre 2011

“Jean-Marie LE PEN – Cannes – 17 décembre 2011” by Philippe MARC – Arles 13200 is licensed under CC by-nc-nd-2.0

But while we are necessarily unsure about Le Pen’s and our own future, we should already know a lot about her, her party, and their voters. The Rassemblement National (formerly the Front National) was founded almost 50 years ago. In the older literature, it was often presented as the “mastercase” or “archetype” of its party family. In all likelihood, it is one of the most well-researched radical right parties in Europe.

To check my intuition and save you some work, I therefore ran a simple keyword search on The Eclectic, Erratic Bibliography on the Extreme Right in Western Europe. After manually removing some false positives (remember the irrelevant National Front in Wallonia that eventually had to change its name because it infringed on Le Pen’s copyright?), I ended up with 63 titles, published between 1985 and 2021. While some of them are comparative (once upon a time, two- and three-country studies were a popular genre), most are exclusively devoted to France, the FN/RN, and the Le Pens. This treasure trove should be enough to occupy you until election night.

  • Almeida, Dimitri. “Cultural retaliation: the cultural policies of the “new” Front National.” International Journal of Cultural Policy (2017): 1-13. doi:10.1080/10286632.2017.1288228
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{almeida-2017,
    author = {Dimitri Almeida},
    title = {Cultural retaliation: the cultural policies of the {"}new{"} Front National},
    journal = {International Journal of Cultural Policy},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {0},
    number = {0},
    pages = {1-13},
    doi = {10.1080/10286632.2017.1288228},
    }

  • Bastow, Steve. “The Front National Under Marine Le Pen: a Mainstream Political Party?.” 16.1 (2018): 19-37. doi:10.1057/s41253-017-0052-7
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{bastow-2018,
    author = {Steve Bastow},
    title = {The Front National Under Marine Le Pen: a Mainstream Political Party?},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2018},
    volume = {16},
    number = {1},
    pages = {19-37},
    doi = {10.1057/s41253-017-0052-7},
    }

  • Bolet, Diane. “Local Labour Market Competition and Radical Right Voting: Evidence From France.” European Journal of Political Research 59.4 (2020): 817-841. doi:10.1111/1475-6765.12378
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{bolet-2020,
    author = {Diane Bolet},
    title = {Local Labour Market Competition and Radical Right Voting: Evidence From France},
    journal = {European Journal of Political Research},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {59},
    number = {4},
    pages = {817-841},
    doi = {10.1111/1475-6765.12378},
    }

  • Bornschier, Simon. “Why a Right-Wing Populist Party Emerged in France but not in Germany. Cleavages and Actors in the Formation of a New Cultural Divide.” European Political Science Review (2011): 121-145. doi:10.1017/S1755773911000117
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{bornschier-2011,
    author = {Simon Bornschier},
    title = {Why a Right-Wing Populist Party Emerged in France but not in Germany. Cleavages and Actors in the Formation of a New Cultural Divide},
    journal = {European Political Science Review},
    pages = {121-145},
    year = {2011},
    doi = {10.1017/S1755773911000117},
    }

  • Brouard, Sylvain and Martial Foucault. “Forecasting the Rise of the Front National During the 2014 Municipal Elections.” 12.4 (2014): 338-347. doi:10.1057/fp.2014.19
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{brouard-foucault-2014,
    author = {Sylvain Brouard and Martial Foucault},
    title = {Forecasting the Rise of the Front National During the 2014 Municipal Elections},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {12},
    number = {4},
    pages = {338-347},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2014.19},
    }

  • Campus, Donatella. “Marine Le Pen’s Peopolisation: an Asset for Leadership Image-Building?.” 15.2 (2017): 147-165. doi:10.1057/s41253-017-0026-9
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{campus-2017,
    author = {Donatella Campus},
    title = {Marine Le Pen's Peopolisation: an Asset for Leadership Image-Building?},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {15},
    number = {2},
    pages = {147-165},
    doi = {10.1057/s41253-017-0026-9},
    }

  • Carvalho, João. “The Impact of Extreme-right Parties on Immigration Policy in Italy and France in the Early 2000s.” Comparative European Politics 14.5 (2016): 663-685. doi:10.1057/cep.2014.47
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{carvalho-2016,
    author = {Jo{\~a}o Carvalho},
    title = {The Impact of Extreme-right Parties on Immigration Policy in Italy and France in the Early 2000s},
    journal = {Comparative European Politics},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {14},
    number = {5},
    pages = {663-685},
    doi = {10.1057/cep.2014.47},
    }

  • Carvalho, João. “Mainstream Party Strategies Towards Extreme Right Parties: The French 2007 and 2012 Presidential Elections.” Government and Opposition (2017): 1-22. doi:10.1017/gov.2017.25
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{carvalho-2017,
    author = {Jo{\~a}o Carvalho},
    title = {Mainstream Party Strategies Towards Extreme Right Parties: The French 2007 and 2012 Presidential Elections},
    journal = {Government and Opposition},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.1017/gov.2017.25},
    pages = {1-22},
    }

  • DeAngelis, Richard A.. “A Rising Tide for Jean-Marie, Jörg, and Pauline? Xenophobic Populism in Comparative Perspective.” Australian Journal of Politics and History 49 (2003): 75-92.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{deangelis-2003,
    author = {Richard A. DeAngelis},
    year = {2003},
    title = {A Rising Tide for Jean-Marie, Jörg, and Pauline? Xenophobic Populism in Comparative Perspective},
    pages = {75-92},
    volume = {49},
    journal = {Australian Journal of Politics and History},
    }

  • Della Posta, Daniel J.. “Competitive Threat, Intergroup Contact, or Both? Immigration and the Dynamics of Front National Voting in France.” Social Forces 92.1 (2013): 249-273. doi:10.1093/sf/sot046
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{della-posta-2013,
    title = {Competitive Threat, Intergroup Contact, or Both? Immigration and the Dynamics of Front National Voting in France},
    volume = {92},
    doi = {10.1093/sf/sot046},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Social Forces},
    author = {Daniel J. {Della Posta}},
    year = {2013},
    pages = {249-273},
    }

  • Dumitrescu, Delia. “Up, Close and Personal: the New Front National Visual Strategy Under Marine Le Pen.” 15.1 (2017): 1-26. doi:10.1057/s41253-016-0012-7
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{dumitrescu-2017,
    author = {Delia Dumitrescu},
    title = {Up, Close and Personal: the New Front National Visual Strategy Under Marine Le Pen},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {15},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1-26},
    doi = {10.1057/s41253-016-0012-7},
    }

  • Ellinas, Antonis A.. “The Resurgence of the Radical Right in France: From Boulangisme To the Front National..” Perspectives on Politics 12.2 (2014): 504-505. doi:10.1017/S153759271400125X
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{ellinas-2014,
    author = {Antonis A. Ellinas},
    title = {The Resurgence of the Radical Right in France: From Boulangisme To the Front National.},
    journal = {Perspectives on Politics},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {12},
    number = {2},
    pages = {504-505},
    doi = {10.1017/S153759271400125X},
    }

  • Evans, Jocelyn and Gilles Ivaldi. “Forecasting the Extreme Right Vote in France (1984-2007).” 6.2 (2008): 137-151. doi:10.1057/fp.2008.1
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{evans-ivaldi-2008,
    author = {Jocelyn Evans and Gilles Ivaldi},
    title = {Forecasting the Extreme Right Vote in France (1984-2007)},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2008},
    volume = {6},
    number = {2},
    pages = {137-151},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2008.1},
    }

  • Evans, Jocelyn and Gilles Ivaldi. “Contextual Effects of Immigrant Presence on Populist Radical Right Support: Testing the `Halo Effect’ on Front National Voting in France.” Comparative Political Studies online first (2020). doi:10.1177/0010414020957677
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{evans-ivaldi-2020,
    author = {Jocelyn Evans and Gilles Ivaldi},
    title = {Contextual Effects of Immigrant Presence on Populist Radical Right Support: Testing the `Halo Effect' on Front National Voting in France},
    journal = {Comparative Political Studies},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {online first},
    doi = {10.1177/0010414020957677},
    }

  • Goodliffe, Gabriel. “Europe’s Salience and “owning” Euroscepticism: Explaining the Front National’s Victory in the 2014 European Elections in France.” French Politics 13.4 (2015): 324-345. doi:10.1057/fp.2015.19
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{goodliffe-2015,
    author = {Gabriel Goodliffe},
    title = {Europe's Salience and {"}owning{"} Euroscepticism: Explaining the Front National's Victory in the 2014 European Elections in France},
    journal = {French Politics},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {13},
    number = {4},
    pages = {324-345},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2015.19},
    }

  • Goodliffe, Gabriel. “From Political Fringe To Political Mainstream: The Front National and the 2014 Municipal Elections in France.” French Politics, Culture & Society 34.3 (2016): 126-147. doi:10.3167/fpcs.2016.340307
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{goodliffe-2016,
    author = {Gabriel Goodliffe},
    title = {From Political Fringe To Political Mainstream: The Front National and the 2014 Municipal Elections in France},
    journal = {French Politics, Culture \& Society},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {34},
    number = {3},
    pages = {126-147},
    doi = {10.3167/fpcs.2016.340307},
    }

  • Hainsworth, Paul. “The Front National: From Ascendancy to Fragmentation on the French Extreme Right.” The Politics of the Extreme Right. From the Margins to the Mainstream. Ed. Hainsworth, Paul. London, New York: Pinter, 2000. 18-32.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{hainsworth-2000c,
    author = {Paul Hainsworth},
    title = {The Front National: From Ascendancy to Fragmentation on the French Extreme Right},
    pages = {18-32},
    publisher = {Pinter},
    editor = {Paul Hainsworth},
    booktitle = {The Politics of the Extreme Right. From the Margins to the Mainstream},
    year = {2000},
    address = {London, New York},
    }

  • Hainsworth, Paul and Paul Mitchell. “France: The Front National from Crossroads to Crossroads?.” Parliamentary Affairs 53 (2000): 443-456.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{hainsworth-mitchell-2000,
    author = {Paul Hainsworth and Paul Mitchell},
    year = {2000},
    title = {France: The Front National from Crossroads to Crossroads?},
    pages = {443-456},
    volume = {53},
    journal = {Parliamentary Affairs},
    }

  • Hutchins, Rachel D. and Daphne Halikiopoulou. “Enemies of Liberty? Nationalism, Immigration, and the Framing of Terrorism in the Agenda of the Front National.” Nations and Nationalism 26.1 (2020): 67-84. doi:10.1111/nana.12555
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{hutchins-halikiopoulou-2020,
    author = {Rachel D. Hutchins and Daphne Halikiopoulou},
    title = {Enemies of Liberty? Nationalism, Immigration, and the Framing of Terrorism in the Agenda of the Front National},
    journal = {Nations and Nationalism},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {26},
    number = {1},
    pages = {67-84},
    doi = {10.1111/nana.12555},
    }

  • Ignazi, Piero and Colette Ysmal. “New and Old Extreme Right Parties – The French Front National and the Italian Movimento Sociale.” European Journal of Political Research 22 (1992): 101-121.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{ignazi-ysmal-1992,
    author = {Piero Ignazi and Colette Ysmal},
    year = {1992},
    title = {New and Old Extreme Right Parties - The French Front National and the Italian Movimento Sociale},
    pages = {101-121},
    volume = {22},
    journal = {European Journal of Political Research},
    }

  • Ivaldi, Gilles. “Towards the Median Economic Crisis Voter? the New Leftist Economic Agenda of the Front National in France.” 13.4 (2015): 346-369. doi:10.1057/fp.2015.17
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{ivaldi-2015,
    author = {Gilles Ivaldi},
    title = {Towards the Median Economic Crisis Voter? the New Leftist Economic Agenda of the Front National in France},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {13},
    number = {4},
    pages = {346-369},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2015.17},
    }

  • Ivaldi, Gilles. “Contesting the EU in Times of Crisis: The Front National and Politics of Euroscepticism in France.” Politics (2018): online first. doi:10.1177/0263395718766787
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{ivaldi-2018,
    author = {Gilles Ivaldi},
    title = {Contesting the EU in Times of Crisis: The Front National and Politics of Euroscepticism in France},
    journal = {Politics},
    year = {2018},
    pages = {online first},
    doi = {10.1177/0263395718766787},
    }

  • Ivaldi, Gilles and Maria Elisabetta Lanzone. “The French Front National: Organizational Change and Adaptation from Jean-Marie to Marine Le Pen.” Understanding Populist Party Organisation. The Radical Right in Western Europe. Eds. Heinisch, Reinhard and Oscar Mazzoleni. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 131-158.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{ivaldi-lanzone-2016,
    author = {Gilles Ivaldi and Maria Elisabetta Lanzone},
    title = {The French Front National: Organizational Change and Adaptation from Jean-Marie to Marine Le Pen},
    booktitle = {Understanding Populist Party Organisation. The Radical Right in Western Europe},
    publisher = {Palgrave Macmillan},
    year = {2016},
    editor = {Reinhard Heinisch and Oscar Mazzoleni},
    pages = {131-158},
    address = {London},
    }

  • Ivaldi, Gilles, Maria Elisabetta Lanzone, and Dwayne Woods. “Varieties of Populism across a Left-Right Spectrum: The Case of the Front National, the Northern League, Podemos and Five Star Movement.” Swiss Political Science Review 23.4 (2017): 354-376. doi:10.1111/spsr.12278
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{ivaldi-lanzone-woods-2017,
    author = {Gilles Ivaldi and Maria Elisabetta Lanzone and Dwayne Woods},
    title = {Varieties of Populism across a Left-Right Spectrum: The Case of the Front National, the Northern League, Podemos and Five Star Movement},
    journal = {Swiss Political Science Review},
    year = {2017},
    volume = {23},
    number = {4},
    pages = {354-376},
    doi = {10.1111/spsr.12278},
    }

  • Jërôme, Bruno and Vëronique Jërôme-Speziari. “A Le Pen Vote Function for the 2002 Presidential Election: a Way To Reduce Uncertainty.” 1.2 (2003): 247-251. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200036
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{jerome-jerome-speziari-2003,
    author = {Bruno J{\"e}r{\^o}me and V{\"e}ronique J{\"e}r{\^o}me-Speziari},
    title = {A Le Pen Vote Function for the 2002 Presidential Election: a Way To Reduce Uncertainty},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2003},
    volume = {1},
    number = {2},
    pages = {247-251},
    doi = {10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200036},
    }

  • Kestilä, Elina and Peter Söderlund. “Subnational Political Opportunity Structures and the Success of the Radical Right. Evidence from the March 2004 Regional Elections in France.” European Journal of Political Research 46 (2007): 773-796. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.2007.00715.x
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{kestilae-soederlund-2007,
    author = {Elina Kestil{\"a} and Peter S{\"o}derlund},
    year = {2007},
    title = {Subnational Political Opportunity Structures and the Success of the Radical Right. Evidence from the March 2004 Regional Elections in France},
    doi = {10.1111/j.1475-6765.2007.00715.x},
    pages = {773-796},
    volume = {46},
    journal = {European Journal of Political Research},
    }

  • Lubbers, Marcel and Peer Scheepers. “French Front National voting: A Micro and Macro Perspective.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 25 (2002): 120-149.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{lubbers-scheepers-2002,
    author = {Marcel Lubbers and Peer Scheepers},
    year = {2002},
    title = {French Front National voting: A Micro and Macro Perspective},
    pages = {120-149},
    volume = {25},
    journal = {Ethnic and Racial Studies},
    }

  • Mayer, Nonna. “Presence of Immigrants and National Front Vote. The Case of Paris (1984-1989).” Ethnic Politics and Civil Liberties. Ed. Barker, Lucius J.. National Political Science Review. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 1992. 103-126.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{mayer-1992,
    author = {Nonna Mayer},
    title = {Presence of Immigrants and National Front Vote. The Case of Paris (1984-1989)},
    booktitle = {Ethnic Politics and Civil Liberties},
    editor = {Lucius J. Barker},
    series = {National Political Science Review},
    year = {1992},
    number = {3},
    publisher = {Transaction Publishers},
    address = {New Brunswick, New Jersey},
    pages = {103-126},
    }

  • Mayer, Nonna. “The Front National in the Plural.” Patterns of Prejudice 32 (1998): 4-24.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{mayer-1998,
    author = {Nonna Mayer},
    year = {1998},
    title = {The Front National in the Plural},
    pages = {4-24},
    volume = {32},
    journal = {Patterns of Prejudice},
    }

  • Mayer, Nonna. “The French National Front.” The New Politics of the Right. Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies. Eds. Betz, Hans-Georg and Stefan Immerfall. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. 11-25.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{mayer-1998b,
    author = {Nonna Mayer},
    title = {The French National Front},
    pages = {11-25},
    publisher = {St. Martin's Press},
    editor = {Hans-Georg Betz and Stefan Immerfall},
    booktitle = {The New Politics of the Right. Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies},
    year = {1998},
    address = {New York},
    }

  • Mayer, Nonna. “Le Pen’s comeback: the 2002 French presidential election.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27.2 (2003): 455-459. doi:10.1111/1468-2427.00458
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{mayer-2003,
    author = {Nonna Mayer},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-2427.00458},
    journal = {International Journal of Urban and Regional Research},
    number = {2},
    pages = {455-459},
    title = {Le Pen's comeback: the 2002 French presidential election},
    volume = {27},
    year = {2003},
    }

  • Mayer, Nonna. “The Closing of the Radical Right Gender Gap in France?.” French Politics 13.4 (2015): 391-414. doi:10.1057/fp.2015.18
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{mayer-2015,
    author = {Nonna Mayer},
    title = {The Closing of the Radical Right Gender Gap in France?},
    journal = {French Politics},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {13},
    number = {4},
    pages = {391-414},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2015.18},
    }

  • Mayer, Nonna and Pascal Perrineau. “Why Do They Vote for Le Pen?.” European Journal of Political Research 22 (1992): 123-141.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{mayer-perrineau-1992,
    author = {Nonna Mayer and Pascal Perrineau},
    year = {1992},
    title = {Why Do They Vote for Le Pen?},
    pages = {123-141},
    volume = {22},
    journal = {European Journal of Political Research},
    }

  • Mermat, Djamel. “”sympathy for the Devil”? Walking the Tight Rope in the Study of the French National Front (2006-2008).” 7.1 (2009): 56-74. doi:10.1057/fp.2009.1
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{mermat-2009,
    author = {Djamel Mermat},
    title = {{"}sympathy for the Devil{"}? Walking the Tight Rope in the Study of the French National Front (2006-2008)},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2009},
    volume = {7},
    number = {1},
    pages = {56-74},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2009.1},
    }

  • Minkenberg, Michael. “The New Radical Right in the Political Process. Interaction Effects in France and Germany.” Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe. Eds. Schain, Martin, Aristide Zolberg, and Patrick Hossay. New York: Palgrave, 2002. 245-268.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{minkenberg-2002,
    author = {Michael Minkenberg},
    title = {The New Radical Right in the Political Process. Interaction Effects in France and Germany},
    pages = {245-268},
    publisher = {Palgrave},
    editor = {Martin Schain and Aristide Zolberg and Patrick Hossay},
    booktitle = {Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe},
    year = {2002},
    address = {New York},
    }

  • Mitra, Subrata. “The National Front in France – a Single-Issue Movement?.” Right-Wing Extremism in Western Europe. Ed. von Beyme, Klaus. London: Frank Cass, 1988. 47-64.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{mitra-1988,
    author = {Subrata Mitra},
    title = {The National Front in France - a Single-Issue Movement?},
    editor = {Klaus von Beyme},
    year = {1988},
    booktitle = {Right-Wing Extremism in Western Europe},
    publisher = {Frank Cass},
    address = {London},
    pages = {47-64},
    }

  • Mondon, Aurelien. “Populism, the “people” and the Illusion of Democracy – the Front National and UKIP in a Comparative Context.” 13.2 (2015): 141-156. doi:10.1057/fp.2015.6
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{mondon-2015,
    author = {Aurelien Mondon},
    title = {Populism, the {"}people{"} and the Illusion of Democracy - the Front National and UKIP in a Comparative Context},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {13},
    number = {2},
    pages = {141-156},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2015.6},
    }

  • Morgan, Kimberly J.. “Gender, Right-wing Populism, and Immigrant Integration Policies in France, 1989-2012.” West European Politics (2017): online first. doi:10.1080/01402382.2017.1287446
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{morgan-2017,
    author = {Kimberly J. Morgan},
    title = {Gender, Right-wing Populism, and Immigrant Integration Policies in France, 1989-2012},
    journal = {West European Politics},
    year = {2017},
    pages = {online first},
    doi = {10.1080/01402382.2017.1287446},
    }

  • Oesch, Daniel. “Explaining Workers’ Support for Right-Wing Populist Parties in Western Europe: Evidence from Austria, Belgium, France, Norway, and Switzerland.” International Political Science Review 29.3 (2008): 349-373.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{oesch-2008,
    author = {Daniel Oesch},
    title = {Explaining Workers' Support for Right-Wing Populist Parties in Western Europe: Evidence from Austria, Belgium, France, Norway, and Switzerland},
    journal = {International Political Science Review},
    year = {2008},
    volume = {29},
    number = {3},
    pages = {349-373},
    }

  • Patana, Pauliina. “Residential Constraints and the Political Geography of the Populist Radical Right: Evidence From France.” Perspectives on Politics online first (2021): 1-18. doi:10.1017/s153759272100219x
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{patana-2021,
    author = {Pauliina Patana},
    title = {Residential Constraints and the Political Geography of the Populist Radical Right: Evidence From France},
    journal = {Perspectives on Politics},
    year = {2021},
    volume = {online first},
    pages = {1-18},
    doi = {10.1017/s153759272100219x},
    }

  • Perrineau, Pascal. “Le Front National. Un Ëlectorat Autoritaire.” Revue Politique et Parlementaire 87.918 (1985): 24-31.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{perrineau-1985,
    author = {Pascal Perrineau},
    title = {Le Front National. Un \"{E}lectorat Autoritaire},
    journal = {Revue Politique et Parlementaire},
    volume = {87},
    year = {1985},
    number = {918},
    pages = {24-31},
    }

  • Reungoat, Emmanuelle. “Mobilizing Europe in National Competition: The Case of the French Front National.” International Political Science Review 36.3 (2015): 296-310. doi:10.1177/0192512114568816
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{reungoat-2015,
    author = {Emmanuelle Reungoat},
    title = {Mobilizing Europe in National Competition: The Case of the French Front National},
    journal = {International Political Science Review},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {36},
    number = {3},
    pages = {296-310},
    doi = {10.1177/0192512114568816},
    }

  • Rydgren, Jens. “Meso-level Reasons for Racism and Xenophobia. Some Converging and Diverging Effects of Radical Right Populism in France and Sweden.” European Journal of Social Theory 6 (2003): 45-68.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{rydgren-2003,
    author = {Jens Rydgren},
    year = {2003},
    title = {Meso-level Reasons for Racism and Xenophobia. Some Converging and Diverging Effects of Radical Right Populism in France and Sweden},
    pages = {45-68},
    volume = {6},
    journal = {European Journal of Social Theory},
    }

  • The Populist Challenge. Political Protest and Ethno-Nationalist Mobilization in France. Ed. Rydgren, Jens. New York: Berghahn Books, 2004.
    [BibTeX]
    @Book{rydgren-2004,
    year = {2004},
    title = {The Populist Challenge. Political Protest and Ethno-Nationalist Mobilization in France},
    address = {New York},
    publisher = {Berghahn Books},
    editor = {Jens Rydgren},
    }

  • Schain, Martin. “The Impact of the French National Front on the French Political System.” Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe. Eds. Schain, Martin, Aristide Zolberg, and Patrick Hossay. New York: Palgrave, 2002. 223-243.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{schain-2002,
    author = {Martin Schain},
    title = {The Impact of the French National Front on the French Political System},
    pages = {223-243},
    publisher = {Palgrave},
    editor = {Martin Schain and Aristide Zolberg and Patrick Hossay},
    booktitle = {Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe},
    year = {2002},
    address = {New York},
    }

  • Shields, James. “The Front National: From Systematic Opposition to Systemic Integration?.” Modern & Contemporary France 22.4 (2014): 491-511. doi:10.1080/09639489.2014.957964
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{shields-2014,
    author = {James Shields},
    title = {The Front National: From Systematic Opposition to Systemic Integration?},
    journal = {Modern \& Contemporary France},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {22},
    number = {4},
    pages = {491-511},
    doi = {10.1080/09639489.2014.957964},
    }

  • Shields, James. “The Front National At the Polls: Transformational Elections Or the Status Quo Reaffirmed?.” 13.4 (2015): 415-433. doi:10.1057/fp.2015.15
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{shields-2015,
    author = {James Shields},
    title = {The Front National At the Polls: Transformational Elections Or the Status Quo Reaffirmed?},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {13},
    number = {4},
    pages = {415-433},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2015.15},
    }

  • Stockemer, Daniel. “Who Are the Members of the French National Front? Evidence From Interview Research.” 12.1 (2014): 36-58. doi:10.1057/fp.2014.1
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{stockemer-2014,
    author = {Daniel Stockemer},
    title = {Who Are the Members of the French National Front? Evidence From Interview Research},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {12},
    number = {1},
    pages = {36-58},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2014.1},
    }

  • Mayer, Nonna. “The Radical Right in France.” The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right. Ed. Rydgren, Jens. Oxford University Press, 2018. 433-451.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{mayer-2018,
    author = {Nonna Mayer},
    title = {The Radical Right in France},
    booktitle = {The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right},
    publisher = {Oxford University Press},
    year = {2018},
    editor = {Jens Rydgren},
    pages = {433-451},
    }

  • Stockemer, Daniel. The Front National in France: Continuity and Change Under Jean-Marie Le Pen and Marine Le Pen. Springer, 2017.
    [BibTeX]
    @Book{stockemer-2017b,
    author = {Daniel Stockemer},
    title = {The Front National in France: Continuity and Change Under Jean-Marie Le Pen and Marine Le Pen},
    publisher = {Springer},
    year = {2017},
    }

  • Stockemer, Daniel. “What Is Right-Wing Populism and How Does It Manifest Itself? an Analysis of the French National Front’s Facebook Posts and Sympathizers” Facebook Comments.” French Politics 17.3 (2019): 340-354. doi:10.1057/s41253-019-00082-w
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{stockemer-2019,
    author = {Daniel Stockemer},
    title = {What Is Right-Wing Populism and How Does It Manifest Itself? an Analysis of the French National Front's Facebook Posts and Sympathizers{"} Facebook Comments},
    journal = {French Politics},
    year = {2019},
    volume = {17},
    number = {3},
    pages = {340-354},
    doi = {10.1057/s41253-019-00082-w},
    }

  • Stockemer, Daniel and Abdelkarim Amengay. “The Voters of the FN Under Jean-Marie Le Pen and Marine Le Pen: Continuity Or Change?.” 13.4 (2015): 370-390. doi:10.1057/fp.2015.16
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{stockemer-amengay-2015,
    author = {Daniel Stockemer and Abdelkarim Amengay},
    title = {The Voters of the FN Under Jean-Marie Le Pen and Marine Le Pen: Continuity Or Change?},
    journaltitle = {French Politics},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {13},
    number = {4},
    pages = {370-390},
    doi = {10.1057/fp.2015.16},
    }

  • Swyngedouw, Marc and Gilles Ivaldi. “The Extreme Right Utopia in Belgium and France: The Ideology of the Flemish Vlaams Blok and the French Front National.” West European Politics 24.3 (2001): 1-22.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{swyngedouw-ivaldi-2001,
    author = {Marc Swyngedouw and Gilles Ivaldi},
    year = {2001},
    title = {The Extreme Right Utopia in Belgium and France: The Ideology of the Flemish Vlaams Blok and the French Front National},
    pages = {1-22},
    volume = {24},
    number = {3},
    journal = {West European Politics},
    }

  • Thillaye, Renaud and Claudia Chwalisz. “The Front National: Old Rhetoric, New Practices.” Polish Quarterly of International Affairs 24.2 (2015): 103-120.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{thillaye-chwalisz-2015,
    author = {Renaud Thillaye and Claudia Chwalisz},
    title = {The Front National: Old Rhetoric, New Practices},
    journal = {Polish Quarterly of International Affairs},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {24},
    number = {2},
    pages = {103-120},
    }

  • Thränhardt, Dietrich. “The Political Uses of Xenophobia in England, France and Germany.” Party Politics 1 (1995): 323-345. doi:10.1177/1354068895001003002
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{thraenhardt-1995,
    author = {Dietrich Thr{\"a}nhardt},
    year = {1995},
    title = {The Political Uses of Xenophobia in England, France and Germany},
    pages = {323-345},
    volume = {1},
    journal = {Party Politics},
    doi = {10.1177/1354068895001003002},
    }

  • Thränhardt, Dietrich. “The Political Use of Xenophobia in England, France, and Germany.” Immigration into Western Societies: Problems and Policies. Eds. Uçarer, Emek M. and Donald J. Puchala. London, Washington: Pinter, 1997. 175-194.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{thraenhardt-1997,
    author = {Dietrich Thr{\"a}nhardt},
    title = {The Political Use of Xenophobia in England, France, and Germany},
    pages = {175-194},
    publisher = {Pinter},
    editor = {Emek M. U{\c c}arer and Donald J. Puchala},
    booktitle = {Immigration into Western Societies: Problems and Policies},
    year = {1997},
    address = {London, Washington},
    }

  • Van Hauwaert, Steven M. and Patrick English. “Responsiveness and the Macro-Origins of Immigration Opinions: Evidence From Belgium, France and the UK.” Comparative European Politics (2018): online first. doi:10.1057/s41295-018-0130-5
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{van-hauwaert-english-2018,
    author = {Steven M. {Van Hauwaert} and Patrick English},
    title = {Responsiveness and the Macro-Origins of Immigration Opinions: Evidence From Belgium, France and the UK},
    journal = {Comparative European Politics},
    year = {2018},
    pages = {online first},
    doi = {10.1057/s41295-018-0130-5},
    }

  • Vasilopoulos, Pavlos, Haley McAvay, and Sylvain Brouard. “Residential Context and Voting for the Far Right. The Impact of Immigration and Unemployment on the 2017 French Presidential Election.” Political Behavior (2021). doi:10.1007/s11109-021-09676-z
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{vasilopoulos-mcavay-brouard-2021,
    author = {Pavlos Vasilopoulos and Haley McAvay and Sylvain Brouard},
    title = {Residential Context and Voting for the Far Right. The Impact of Immigration and Unemployment on the 2017 French Presidential Election},
    journal = {Political Behavior},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/s11109-021-09676-z},
    }

  • Veugelers, John W. P.. “Social Cleavage and the Revival of Far Right Parties: The Case of France’s National Front.” Acta Sociologica 40 (1997): 31-49.
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{veugelers-1997,
    author = {John W. P. Veugelers},
    year = {1997},
    title = {Social Cleavage and the Revival of Far Right Parties: The Case of France's National Front},
    pages = {31-49},
    volume = {40},
    journal = {Acta Sociologica},
    }

  • Veugelers, John W. P.. “Right-Wing Extremism in Contemporary France: A “”Silent Counterrevolution””?.” Sociological Quarterly 41 (2000): 19-40. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2000.tb02364.x
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{veugelers-2000,
    author = {John W.P. Veugelers},
    year = {2000},
    title = {Right-Wing Extremism in Contemporary France: A {"}{"}Silent Counterrevolution{"}{"}?},
    pages = {19-40},
    doi = {10.1111/j.1533-8525.2000.tb02364.x},
    volume = {41},
    journal = {Sociological Quarterly},
    }

  • Veugelers, John. “After Colonialism: Local Politics and Far-Right Affinities in a City of Southern France.” Mapping the Extreme Right in Contemporary Europe. From Local to Transnational. Eds. Mammone, Andrea, Emmanuel Godin, and Brian Jenkins. London and others: Routledge, 2012. 33-47.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{veugelers-2012,
    title = {After Colonialism: Local Politics and Far-Right Affinities in a City of Southern France},
    booktitle = {Mapping the Extreme Right in Contemporary Europe. From Local to Transnational},
    author = {John Veugelers},
    editor = {Andrea Mammone and Emmanuel Godin and Brian Jenkins},
    address = {London and others},
    publisher = {Routledge},
    year = {2012},
    pages = {33-47},
    }

  • Veugelers, John W. P. and Roberto Chiarini. “The Far Right in France and Italy: Nativist Politics and Anti-Fascism.” Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe. Eds. Schain, Martin, Aristide Zolberg, and Patrick Hossay. New York: Palgrave, 2002. 83-103.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{veugelers-chiarini-2002,
    author = {John W. P. Veugelers and Roberto Chiarini},
    title = {The Far Right in France and Italy: Nativist Politics and Anti-Fascism},
    pages = {83-103},
    publisher = {Palgrave},
    editor = {Martin Schain and Aristide Zolberg and Patrick Hossay},
    booktitle = {Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe},
    year = {2002},
    address = {New York},
    }

  • Veugelers, John, Gabriel Menard, and Pierre Permingeat. “Colonial Past, Voluntary Association and Far-right Voting in France.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 38.5 (2015): 775-791. doi:10.1080/01419870.2014.902088
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{veugelers-menard-permingeat-2015,
    author = {John Veugelers and Gabriel Menard and Pierre Permingeat},
    title = {Colonial Past, Voluntary Association and Far-right Voting in France},
    journal = {Ethnic and Racial Studies},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {38},
    number = {5},
    pages = {775-791},
    doi = {10.1080/01419870.2014.902088},
    }

Feb 252019
 
local living conditions and radical right voting
How do people in cities & the countryside react to the presence or absence of immigrants? How does local decline further radical right mobilisation? Are immigrants becoming convenient scapegoats for developments that have nothing to do with them?

Or does the daily interaction between immigrants and the native population foster positive contacts that lead to pro-immigration attitudes? And what role do self-selection of liberal-minded individuals into multi-cultural neighbourhoods on the one hand and “white flight” on the other play?

These are (I think) fascinating questions that have occupied me for a long time. Thanks to my fantastic colleagues in the SCoRE project, we are a bit closer to answering them. Tomorrow, we’ll present first findings and a couple of policy recommendations at an EPC event in Brussels. If you can’t/couldn’t make it to Belgium, watch this short video and read either the full policy brief or the executive summary.

Local living conditions, immigrants & the Radical Right in Europe
Watch this video on YouTube.

Feb 102019
 
AfD results in 2017 federal election in Germany (map of districts)
As (West) European election years go, 2017 was quite something. The French party system changed beyond recognition. The radical right entered Germany’s national parliament for the first time. UKIP was wiped out, but May still managed to lose a comfortable majority. And very high fragmentation resulted in a coalition that looks improbable even by Dutch standards.

SCoRE is our multinational project that explores the link between local and regional living conditions on the one hand and radical right attitudes and behaviours in these four countries on the other. Sometimes, serendipity is really a thing. Because we had our individual-level data collection scheduled for this year anyway, we gained some unique insights into all four big Western European elections of 2017.

Accordingly, my colleagues have written up reports for France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK, complete with beautiful maps. Who does not like maps?

Four 2017 elections that changed West European Politics: France, Germany, the Netherlands & the UK
Watch this video on YouTube.

But perhaps you’re pressed for time or not sure if you really want to read four (fairly short) reports? With the European Parliamentary elections on the horizon, I made a short explainer/teaser video about them to bring you up to speed in just over two minutes. I have a hunch that afterwards, you will want to read all four pieces.

Apr 252018
 

Elections in Europe: great expectations.

Elections in Europe: a map of france

Source: Evans & Ivaldi, SCoRE project

2017 was a year of high-profile national elections in Europe, in which the Radical Right was expected to do particularly well. Balanced and neutral as ever, the Express claimed that the votes in France, Germany, and the Netherlands could DESTROY the EU. The Independent also flagged up the Dutch, German, and French elections, but added the Italian referendum, the Austrian presidential elections (both actually in 2016), and the British local elections, which, in hindsight, seems particularly quaint. Most observers missed the much more problematic Austrian parliamentary elections, and no one (arguably including the PM) expected Britain to go the polls, again.

SCoRE election data from four European countries

Elections in Europe: A map of UKIP losses in 2017

Source: Will Allchorn and Jocelyn Evans, SCoRE

For better or worse, the individual-level data collection for our project on sub-national context and radical right support in Europe (SCoRE) was scheduled for 2017 anyway. In SCoRE, we try to bring together particularly fine-grained official data on living conditions (including immigration, unemployment, local economic growth, and access to basic services) with survey data on right-wing attitudes and other attitudinal and behaviour variables that are geo-referenced. In other words: we can see how the way people think is linked to where they live, and what it is like there. And with the British PM’s decision to have a snap election, we became an election study on the side.

All politics is local: a close look at regional patterns of radical right voting in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK

What sets SCoRE apart from other projects is its focus on regional and even local patterns of voting. To showcase this, my colleagues have produced a series of reports on the elections in Europe from this particular angle.

Will Allchorn and Jocelyn Evans (University of Leeds) study the switch from UKIP to the Conservatives in the 2017 election. One of their most interesting findings (I think) is that “the switchers are more strongly anti-European suggesting a tactical preference for a governing party able to deliver Brexit.

Eelco Harteveld and Sarah de Lange show that support for the Dutch Radical Right is not strongly correlated with a rural-urban divide. The PVV thrives in areas that are economically deprived and suffer from demographic stagnation, independent of urbanisation.

Elections in Europe: a map of PVV results in the Netherlands

Source: Harteveld & de Lange, SCoRE

Elections in Europe: a map of AfD results in Germany

Source: Berning, SCoRE

In Germany, the AfD is very much an eastern party. However, Carl Berning demonstrates that in the 2017 election, the
AfD did also well in the south-western states. A (perceived) sense of local decline seems to be a major factor.

Finally, a strong rural/urban divide sets in radical right voting is characteristic for France. Gilles Ivaldi and Jocelyn Evans show that support for the Front National was broken up into two distinct clusters, one in the northern rust belt, the other in the south.

Dec 172017
 
Nov 102016
 
The right-wing website Breitbart, one of the key allies of the Trump campaign, has told Reuters (link to the article is below) that they want to expand their network to include sites for France and Germany. Breitbart already has a site in the UK, which was an important part of the pro-Brexit network. Allegedly, they have begun hiring staff, so they must think that there is a market for their kind of journalism in these two countries. Goddess help us all.

May 102014
 
In a recent publication (Arzheimer & Evans 2014), we propose a new multinomial measure B for bias in opinion surveys. We also supply a suite of ado files for Stata, surveybias, which plugs into Stata’s framework for estimation programs and provides estimates for this and other measures along with their standard errors.  This is the first instalment in a mini series of posts that show how our commands can be used with real-world data. Here, we analyse the quality of a single French pre-election poll.

Installing surveybias for Stata

You can install surveybias directly from this website (net from https://www.kai-arzheimer.com/stata), but it may more convenient to install from SSC ssc install surveybias

Assessing Bias in Presidential Pre-Election Surveys

. use onefrenchsurvey

The French presidential campaign of 2012 attracted considerable political interest. Accordingly, numerous surveys were fielded. onefrenchsurvey.dta (included in our package) contains data from one of them, taken a couple of weeks before the actual election. The command I will discuss in this post is called (*drumroll*) surveybias and is the main workhorse in our package. surveybias needs exactly one variable as a mandatory argument: the voting intention as measured in the survey, which is appropriately called “vote” in this example. Moreover, surveybias requires an option through which must submit the true distribution of this variable. Absolute or relative frequencies will do just as well as percentages, since surveybias will automatically rescale any of them.

Ten candidates stood in the first round of the French presidential election in 2012, but only two of them would progress to the run-off. While surveybias can handle variables with up to twelve categories, requesting estimates for very small parties increases the computational burden, may lead to numerically unstable estimates and is often of little substantive interest. In onefrenchsurvey.dta support for the two-lowest ranking candidates has therefore been recoded to a generic “other” category. The first-round results, which serve as a yardstick for the accuracy of the poll, are submitted in popvalues(). For other options, have a look at the documentation.


. surveybias vote, popvalues(28.6 27.18 17.9 9.13 11.1 2.31 1.15 1.79 0.8)
______________ ________________________________________________________________
vote       Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]
______________ ________________________________________________________________
A´
Hollande   -.0757639   .0697397    -1.09   0.277    -.2124512    .0609233
Sarkozy    .0477294   .0689193     0.69   0.489    -.0873499    .1828087
LePen   -.0559812   .0823209    -0.68   0.496    -.2173271    .1053648
Bayrou    .3057213   .0953504     3.21   0.001     .1188379    .4926047
Melenchon   -.0058251   .0988715    -0.06   0.953    -.1996096    .1879594
Joly   -.0913924   .2154899    -0.42   0.671    -.5137449      .33096
Poutou   -.8802476   .4482915    -1.96   0.050    -1.758883   -.0016125
DupontAigna   -.5349338   .3031171    -1.76   0.078    -1.129032    .0591648
other    .1841789   .3177577     0.58   0.562    -.4386147    .8069724
______________ ________________________________________________________________
B
B    .2424193   .0767485     3.16   0.002     .0919949    .3928437
B_w    .0965423    .039022     2.47   0.013     .0200605    .1730241
______________ ________________________________________________________________

Ho: no bias
Degrees of freedom: 8
Chi-square (Pearson) = 18.695468
Pr (Pearson) = .01657592
Chi-square (LR) = 19.540804
Pr (LR) = .01222022


The top panel lists the Ai for the first eight candidates plus the “other” category alongside their standard errors, z- and p-values, and confidence intervals. Ai is a party-specific, multi-party version of Martin, Traugott, and Kennedy’s measure A and reflects bias for/against any specific party. By conventional standards (p 0.05), only two of these values are significantly different from zero: Support for François Bayrou was overestimated (A4 = 0.31) while support for Philippe Poutou was underestimated (A7 = 0.88).

Poutou was the little known candidate for the tiny “New Anticapitalist Party”. While he received more than twice the predicted number of votes (1exp(0.88) 2.4), the case of Bayrou is more interesting. Bayrou, a centre-right candidate, stood in the previous 2007 election and came third with a very respectable result of almost 19 per cent, taking many political observers by surprise. In 2012, when he stood for a new party that he had founded immediately after the 2007 election, his vote effectively halved. But this is not fully reflected in the poll, which overestimates his support by roughly a third (exp(0.31) 1.35). This could be due to (misguided) bandwagon effects, sampling bias, or political weighting of the poll by the company.

The lower panel of the output lists B and Bw, a weighted version of our measure. B, the unweighed average of the Ais absolute values, is much higher than Bw. This is because the estimates for all the major candidates with the exception of Bayrou were reasonably good. While support for Poutou and also for Dupont-Aignan was underestimated by large factors, Bw heavily discounts these differences, because they are of little practical relevance unless one is interested specifically in splinter parties.

As outlined in the article in which we derive B, B’s (and Bw’s) sampling distribution is non-normal, rendering the p-value of 0.002 somewhat dubious. surveybias therefore performs additional χ2-tests based on the Pearson and the likelihood-ratio formulae, whose results are listed below the main table. In this case, however, both tests agree that the null hypothesis of no bias is indeed falsified by the data.

While their p-values are clearly higher than the one resulting from the inappropriate z-test on B, they are close to the p-value for Bw. This is to be expected, because the upward bias and the non-normality become less severe as the number of categories increases, and because the weighting reduces the impact of differences that are small in absolute numbers but associated with large values on the log-ratio scale.

surveybias leaves the full variance-covariance matrix behind for your edification. Parameter estimates, chi-square values and probabilities are available, too, so that you can easily test all sorts of interesting variables about bias in this poll.

Apr 052014
 
The first round of the French local elections created quite a stir, but the second round of the French local elections was not a bad day for the anoraks either. While the initial focus was on the not totally unexpected success of the Front National, most of my correspondents agree that the real news is the annihilation of the governing Parti socialiste. Amongst the many posts, here are the ones I find most interesting:

marine le pen photoPhoto by Mashthetics French Local Elections Round 2 Link Roundup 1

  1. Over at the LSE blog, Jocelyn Evans and Gilles Ivaldi, the grand seigneurs of Front National blogging, argue just that: The shock of Sunday’s French municipal elections was the Socialist defeat (this is actually reblogged from their own 500signatures site). The Guardian agrees.
  2. For Art Goldhammer, it is the end of municipal socialism.
  3. Part of the fallout was the appointment of Manuel Valls as new French PM. John Gaffney thinks that this was a desperate move that will come back to haunt Hollande.
  4. But Art Goldhammer links to a source claiming that Hollande actually has been wanting Valls to be PM for a long time.
  5. And here is an “interview” on the Monkey Cage – interesting questions/answers on Hollande’s electoral disaster, but in a slightly odd format.
Mar 242014
 
Predictably, the Front National has done well in yesterday’s local elections in France, and predictably, everyone is very excited about. Much has been said about the FN’s performance, but not yet by everyone. Here is a bunch of useful links to bring your punditry up to scratch.

  1. First, the electoral system for the locals. It is slightly weird (no surprises here). La Jeune Politque has an explainer (not sure how complete it is), and also a map identifying some of the interesting contests. They were also live-blogging the first round of the French locals.
  2. EUobserver has a short summary of the results. The Guardian has some additional coverage.
  3. Writing ahead of the election, James Shields (over the LSE blog) thinks the FN will remain isolated and hampered by the electoral system.
  4. The 500 signatures blog by Messrs. Evans and Ivaldi has forecasts (now backcasts) of the national result as well as background stories on the races in the big three (Paris, Lyon, Marseilles).
  5. Euractiv has another short summary and outlook for the second round.
  6. Art Goldhammer looks at the (slightly) longer game, i.e. the implications for the Hollande adminstration.

Have I missed something important?