Rechtsextremismus und Rechtspopulismus in Europa

 

Rechtsextremismus in Europa?

In fast allen Ländern Westeuropas spielt die Extreme Rechte seit den 1990er Jahren eine relevante politische Rolle. Oft wird dies als neue Form des Rechtsextremismus in Europa wahrgenommen. Andere Beobachter sprechen von Rechtspopulismus. Ich selbst bevorzuge den Überbegriff Extreme Rechte, der vor allem auf den Unterschied zu den Mitte-Rechts-Parteien abhebt. Unabhängig von der Terminologie ist die Erforschung dieser Parteien und ihrer Wähler für mich ein zentrales Thema.

Erfolge der Extremen Rechten in Europa: Ursachen

Seit der Jahrtausendwende beschäftige ich mich verstärkt mit den Wählern rechtsextremer/rechtsradikaler und rechtspopulistischer Parteien in Europa. Dabei interessiere ich mich vor allem für den Effekt von Kontextvariablen wie Arbeitslosigkeit, Zuwanderung und Rückbau von Sozialleistungen auf individuelle rechte Einstellungen und Wahlverhalten. In den letzten Jahren habe ich damit begonnen, neben nationalen auch kleinräumigere Kontexte in Großbritannien und Frankreich zu untersuchen, um herauszufinden, welche Wirkung regionale und lokale Zuwanderung und Wirtschaftslage auf die Chancen der Extremen Rechten in Europa haben.

  • Arzheimer, Kai. “The AfD: Finally a Successful Right-Wing Populist Eurosceptic Party for Germany?.” West European Politics 38 (2015): 535-556.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF] [HTML] [DATA]

    Within less than two years of being founded by disgruntled members of the governing CDU, the newly-formed Alternative for Germany (AfD) party has already performed extraordinary well in the 2013 General election, the 2014 EP election, and a string of state elections. Highly unusually by German standards, it campaigned for an end to all efforts to save the Euro and argued for a re-configuration of Germany’s foreign policy. This seems to chime with the recent surge in far right voting in Western Europe, and the AfD was subsequently described as right-wing populist and europhobe. On the basis of the party’s manifesto and of hundreds of statements the party has posted on the internet, this article demonstrates that the AfD does indeed occupy a position at the far-right of the German party system, but it is currently neither populist nor does it belong to the family of Radical Right parties. Moreover, its stance on European Integration is more nuanced than expected and should best be classified as soft eurosceptic.

    @Article{arzheimer-2015,
    author = {Arzheimer, Kai},
    title = {The AfD: Finally a Successful Right-Wing Populist Eurosceptic Party
    for Germany?},
    journal = {West European Politics},
    year = 2015,
    volume = 38,
    pages = {535--556},
    keywords = {gp-e, cp, eurorex},
    abstract = {Within less than two years of being founded by disgruntled members
    of the governing CDU, the newly-formed Alternative for Germany
    (AfD) party has already performed extraordinary well in the 2013
    General election, the 2014 EP election, and a string of state
    elections. Highly unusually by German standards, it campaigned for
    an end to all efforts to save the Euro and argued for a
    re-configuration of Germany's foreign policy. This seems to chime
    with the recent surge in far right voting in Western Europe, and
    the AfD was subsequently described as right-wing populist and
    europhobe. On the basis of the party's manifesto and of hundreds of
    statements the party has posted on the internet, this article
    demonstrates that the AfD does indeed occupy a position at the
    far-right of the German party system, but it is currently neither
    populist nor does it belong to the family of Radical Right parties.
    Moreover, its stance on European Integration is more nuanced than
    expected and should best be classified as soft eurosceptic. },
    data = {http://hdl.handle.net/10.7910/DVN/28755},
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/afd-right-wing-populist-eurosceptic-germany},
    url = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/afd-right-wing-populist-eurosceptic-germany.pdf}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai. “Book Review: Inside the Radical Right: The Development of Anti-Immigrant Parties in Western Europ, by David Art.” West European Politics 35.5 (2012): 1208-1209. doi:10.1080/01402382.2012.706421
    [BibTeX] [HTML]
    @Article{ arzheimer-2012e,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai},
    title = {Book Review: Inside the Radical Right: The Development of
    Anti-Immigrant Parties in Western Europ, by David Art},
    journal  = {West European Politics},
    year = 2012,
    volume  = 35,
    number  = 5,
    pages = {1208--1209},
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/review-david-art-inside-the-radical-right-2011/}
    ,
    doi = {10.1080/01402382.2012.706421}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai. “Working Class Parties 2.0? Competition between Centre Left and Extreme Right Parties.” Class Politics and the Radical Right. Ed. Rydren, Jens. London, New York: Routledge, 2012. 75-90.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF] [HTML]

    The propensity of workers to vote for the Extreme Right has risen significantly. This "proletarisation"" is the result of the interplay between a long-term dealignment process and increasing worries amongst the European working classes about the immigration of cheap labour. As a result, Western European Centre Left parties may find themselves squeezed between the New Right on the one hand and the New Left on the other. There is no obvious strategy for dealing with this dilemma. Staying put will not win working class defectors back. Toughening up immigration policies is unpalatable for many party members, does not seem to make Social Democrats more attractive for working class voters, and might eventually alienate other social groups.

    @InCollection{ arzheimer-2012c,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai},
    title = {Working Class Parties 2.0? Competition between Centre Left
    and Extreme Right Parties},
    booktitle  = {Class Politics and the Radical Right},
    publisher  = {Routledge},
    year = 2012,
    pages = {75--90},
    editor  = {Rydren, Jens},
    abstract  = {The propensity of workers to vote for the Extreme Right
    has risen significantly. This "proletarisation"" is the
    result of the interplay between a long-term dealignment
    process and increasing worries amongst the European working
    classes about the immigration of cheap labour. As a result,
    Western European Centre Left parties may find themselves
    squeezed between the New Right on the one hand and the New
    Left on the other. There is no obvious strategy for dealing
    with this dilemma. Staying put will not win working class
    defectors back. Toughening up immigration policies is
    unpalatable for many party members, does not seem to make
    Social Democrats more attractive for working class voters,
    and might eventually alienate other social groups.},
    url = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/working-class-parties-extreme-right.pdf}
    ,
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/extreme-right-working-class-centre-left-competition/}
    ,
    address  = {London, New York}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai. “Electoral Sociology: Who Votes for the Extreme Right and Why – and When?.” The Extreme Right in Europe. Current Trends and Perspectives. Eds. Backes, Uwe and Patrick Moreau. Göttingen: Vendenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2012. 35-50.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF] [HTML]
    @InCollection{ arzheimer-2012d,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai},
    title = {Electoral Sociology: Who Votes for the Extreme Right and
    Why - and When?},
    booktitle  = {The Extreme Right in Europe. Current Trends and
    Perspectives},
    pages = {35-50},
    publisher  = {Vendenhoeck \& Ruprecht},
    year = 2012,
    editor  = {Backes, Uwe and Moreau, Patrick},
    address  = {G{\"o}ttingen},
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/blog/out-backes#start},
    url = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/arzheimer-extreme-right-review.pdf}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter. “Christian Religiosity and Voting for West European Radical Right Parties.” West European Politics 32.5 (2009): 985-1011. doi:10.1080/01402380903065058
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF] [HTML]

    This article examines the relationship between Christian religiosity and the support for radical right parties in Western Europe. Drawing on theories of electoral choice and on socio-psychological literature largely ignored by scholars of electoral behaviour, it suggests and tests a number of competing hypotheses. The findings demonstrate that while religiosity has few direct effects, and while religious people are neither more nor less hostile towards ethnic minorities and thereby neither more nor less prone to vote for a radical right party, they are not ‘available’ to these parties because they are still firmly attached to Christian Democratic or conservative parties. However, given increasing de-alignment, this ‘vaccine effect’ is likely to become weaker with time.

    @Article{ arzheimer-carter-wep-2009,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai and Carter, Elisabeth},
    doi = {10.1080/01402380903065058},
    journal  = {West European Politics},
    number  = 5,
    pages = {985--1011},
    title = {Christian Religiosity and Voting for West European Radical
    Right Parties},
    volume  = 32,
    url = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/christian-religiosity-radical-right-voting.pdf}
    ,
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/christian-religions-radical-right-parties/}
    ,
    abstract  = {This article examines the relationship between Christian
    religiosity and the support for radical right parties in
    Western Europe. Drawing on theories of electoral choice and
    on socio-psychological literature largely ignored by
    scholars of electoral behaviour, it suggests and tests a
    number of competing hypotheses. The findings demonstrate
    that while religiosity has few direct effects, and while
    religious people are neither more nor less hostile towards
    ethnic minorities and thereby neither more nor less prone
    to vote for a radical right party, they are not 'available'
    to these parties because they are still firmly attached to
    Christian Democratic or conservative parties. However,
    given increasing de-alignment, this 'vaccine effect' is
    likely to become weaker with time.},
    year = 2009
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter. “How (not) to operationalise subnational political opportunity structures: A critique of Kestilä and Söderlund’s study of regional elections.” European Journal of Political Research 48.3 (2009): 335-358. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.2009.00842.x
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF] [HTML]

    Based on an aggregate analysis of the French regional elections of 2004, Kestilä and Söderlund, in their 2007 article, ‘Subnational Political Opportunity Structures and the Success of the Radical Right: Evidence from the March 2004 Regional Elections in France’, examine the impact of subnational political opportunity structures on the success of the radical right and argue that such an approach can control for a wider range of factors and provide more reliable results than cross-national analyses. The present article disputes this claim on theoretical, conceptual and methodological grounds and demonstrates that their empirical findings are spurious.

    @Article{ arzheimer-carter-ejpr-2009,
    doi = {10.1111/j.1475-6765.2009.00842.x },
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai and Carter, Elisabeth},
    title = {How (not) to operationalise subnational political
    opportunity structures: A critique of Kestil{\"a} and
    S{\"o}derlund's study of regional elections},
    journal  = {European Journal of Political Research},
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/paper/not-operationalise-subnational-political-opportunity-structures/}
    ,
    url = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/Subnational-Political-Opportunity-Structures-in-France.pdf}
    ,
    year = 2009,
    volume  = 48,
    abstract  = {Based on an aggregate analysis of the French regional
    elections of 2004, Kestil{\"a} and S{\"o}derlund, in their
    2007 article, 'Subnational Political Opportunity Structures
    and the Success of the Radical Right: Evidence from the
    March 2004 Regional Elections in France', examine the
    impact of subnational political opportunity structures on
    the success of the radical right and argue that such an
    approach can control for a wider range of factors and
    provide more reliable results than cross-national analyses.
    The present article disputes this claim on theoretical,
    conceptual and methodological grounds and demonstrates that
    their empirical findings are spurious.},
    number  = 3,
    pages = {335-358}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai. “Contextual Factors and the Extreme Right Vote in Western Europe, 1980–2002.” American Journal of Political Science 53.2 (2009): 259-275. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2009.00369.x
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF] [HTML]

    Research on the voters of the extreme right in Western Europe has become a minor industry, but relatively little attention has been paid to the twin question of why support for these parties is often unstable, and why the extreme right is so weak in many countries. Moreover, the findings from different studies often contradict each other. This article aims at providing a more comprehensive and satisfactory answer to this research problem by employing a broader database and a more adequate modeling strategy. The main finding is that while immigration and unemployment rates are important, their interaction with other political factors is much more complex than suggested by previous research. Moreover, persistent country effects prevail even if a whole host of individual and contextual variables is controlled for.

    @Article{ arzheimer-2009,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai},
    title = {Contextual Factors and the Extreme Right Vote in Western
    Europe, 1980--2002 },
    journal  = {American Journal of Political Science},
    year = 2009,
    volume  = 53,
    number  = 2,
    doi = {10.1111/j.1540-5907.2009.00369.x},
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/contextual-factors-extreme-right-vote-western-europe-1980-2002}
    ,
    abstract  = {Research on the voters of the extreme right in Western
    Europe has become a minor industry, but relatively little
    attention has been paid to the twin question of why support
    for these parties is often unstable, and why the extreme
    right is so weak in many countries. Moreover, the findings
    from different studies often contradict each other. This
    article aims at providing a more comprehensive and
    satisfactory answer to this research problem by employing a
    broader database and a more adequate modeling strategy. The
    main finding is that while immigration and unemployment
    rates are important, their interaction with other political
    factors is much more complex than suggested by previous
    research. Moreover, persistent country effects prevail even
    if a whole host of individual and contextual variables is
    controlled for. },
    url = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/contextual-factors-and-the-extreme-right-vote-in-western-europe-1980-2002.pdf}
    ,
    pages = {259-275}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai. “Arbeiter, Arbeitslose, Asylbewerber. Die Wahl der Extremen Rechten heute im Lichte der Ergebnisse historischer Wahlforschung.” Politik — Wissenschaft — Medien. Festschrift für Jürgen Falter zum 65. Geburtstag. Eds. Kaspar, Hanna, Harald Schoen, Siegfried Schumann, and Jürgen R. Winkler. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2009. 15-32.
    [BibTeX]
    @InCollection{ arzheimer-2009c,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai},
    title = {Arbeiter, Arbeitslose, Asylbewerber. Die Wahl der Extremen
    Rechten heute im Lichte der Ergebnisse historischer
    Wahlforschung},
    editor  = {Kaspar, Hanna and Schoen, Harald and Schumann, Siegfried
    and Winkler, J{\"u}rgen R.},
    booktitle  = {Politik -- Wissenschaft -- Medien. Festschrift f{\"u}r
    J{\"u}rgen Falter zum 65. Geburtstag},
    pages = {15--32},
    publisher  = {VS Verlag f{\"u}r Sozialwissenschaften},
    year = 2009
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai. “Protest, Neo-Liberalism or Anti-Immigrant Sentiment: What Motivates the Voters of the Extreme Right in Western Europe?.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft/Comparative Governance and Politics 2 (2009): 173-197. doi:10.1007/s12286-008-0011-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF] [HTML]

    Over the last three decades, the parties of the "Extreme", "Radical" or "Populist" Right have become a political staple in Western Europe. However, comparative evidence on the motives of their voters is relatively scarce. This article assesses the empirical effects of the most prominent alleged motivational factors "pure" (i.e. performance related) protest, anti-immigrant sentiment, and neo-liberal economic preferences – on the extreme right vote while controlling for a whole host of background variables. While protest and neo-liberalism have no statistically significant impact whatsoever, immigrant sentiment plays a crucial role in all countries but Italy. Its effect is moderated, however, by general ideological preferences and party identification. Consequentially, comparative electoral research should focus on the circumstances under which immigration is politicised.

    @Article{ arzheimer-zfpw-2009,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai},
    title = {Protest, Neo-Liberalism or Anti-Immigrant Sentiment: What
    Motivates the Voters of the Extreme Right in Western
    Europe?},
    journal  = {Zeitschrift f{\"u}r Vergleichende
    Politikwissenschaft/Comparative Governance and Politics },
    year = 2009,
    volume  = 2,
    abstract  = {Over the last three decades, the parties of the "Extreme",
    "Radical" or "Populist" Right have become a political
    staple in Western Europe. However, comparative evidence on
    the motives of their voters is relatively scarce. This
    article assesses the empirical effects of the most
    prominent alleged motivational factors "pure" (i.e.
    performance related) protest, anti-immigrant sentiment, and
    neo-liberal economic preferences - on the extreme right
    vote while controlling for a whole host of background
    variables. While protest and neo-liberalism have no
    statistically significant impact whatsoever, immigrant
    sentiment plays a crucial role in all countries but Italy.
    Its effect is moderated, however, by general ideological
    preferences and party identification. Consequentially,
    comparative electoral research should focus on the
    circumstances under which immigration is politicised. },
    doi = {10.1007/s12286-008-0011-4},
    url = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/ideology-protest-extreme-right-vote.pdf}
    ,
    pages = {173-197},
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/protest-neo-liberalism-anti-immigrant-sentiment-extreme-right/}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai. Die Wähler der extremen Rechten 1980-2002. Wiebaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2008. doi:10.1007/978-3-531-91009-3
    [BibTeX] [HTML]
    @Book{ arzheimer-2008,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai},
    year = {2008},
    title = {Die W{\"a}hler der extremen Rechten 1980-2002},
    address  = {Wiebaden},
    publisher  = {VS Verlag f{\"u}r Sozialwissenschaften},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-531-91009-3},
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/die-wahler-der-extremen-rechten-westeuropa/}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter. “Political Opportunity Structures and Right-Wing Extremist Party Success.” European Journal of Political Research 45 (2006): 419-443. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00304.x
    [BibTeX] [DATA]
    @Article{ arzheimer-carter-2006,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai and Carter, Elisabeth},
    year = 2006,
    title = {Political Opportunity Structures and Right-Wing Extremist
    Party Success},
    pages = {419--443},
    data = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/23280},
    volume  = 45,
    doi = {10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00304.x},
    journal  = {European Journal of Political Research}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter. “Political Opportunity Structures and Right-Wing Extremist Party Success.” European Journal of Political Research 45 (2006): 419-443. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00304.x
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF] [HTML]

    West European right-wing extremist parties have received a great deal of attention over the past two decades due to their electoral success. What has received less coverage, however, is the fact that these parties have not enjoyed a consistent level of electoral support across Western Europe during this period. This article puts forward an explanation of the variation in the right-wing extremist party vote across Western Europe that incorporates a wider range of factors than have been considered previously. It begins by examining the impact of socio-demographic variables on the right-wing extremist party vote. Then, it turns its attention to a whole host of structural factors that may potentially affect the extreme right party vote, including institutional, party-system and conjunctural variables. The article concludes with an assessment of which variables have the most power in explaining the uneven electoral success of right-wing extremist parties across Western Europe. The findings go some way towards challenging the conventional wisdom as to how the advance of the parties of the extreme right may be halted.

    @Article{ arzheimer-carter04,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai and Carter, Elisabeth},
    title = {Political Opportunity Structures and Right-Wing Extremist
    Party Success},
    journal  = {European Journal of Political Research},
    volume  = 45,
    pages = {419--443},
    doi = {10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00304.x},
    url = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/Political-Opportunity-Structures/Right-Wing-Extremist-Party-Success.pdf}
    ,
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/political-opportunity-structures-right-wing-extremist-party-success/}
    ,
    abstract  = {West European right-wing extremist parties have received a
    great deal of attention over the past two decades due to
    their electoral success. What has received less coverage,
    however, is the fact that these parties have not enjoyed a
    consistent level of electoral support across Western Europe
    during this period. This article puts forward an
    explanation of the variation in the right-wing extremist
    party vote across Western Europe that incorporates a wider
    range of factors than have been considered previously. It
    begins by examining the impact of socio-demographic
    variables on the right-wing extremist party vote. Then, it
    turns its attention to a whole host of structural factors
    that may potentially affect the extreme right party vote,
    including institutional, party-system and conjunctural
    variables. The article concludes with an assessment of
    which variables have the most power in explaining the
    uneven electoral success of right-wing extremist parties
    across Western Europe. The findings go some way towards
    challenging the conventional wisdom as to how the advance
    of the parties of the extreme right may be halted.},
    year = 2006
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter. Explaining Variation in the Extreme Right Vote: The Individual and the Political Environment. Keele: Keele European Parties Research Unit, Working Paper 19, 2003.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]
    @Book{ arzheimer-carter-2003,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai and Carter, Elisabeth},
    year = 2003,
    title = {Explaining Variation in the Extreme Right Vote: The
    Individual and the Political Environment},
    address  = {Keele},
    publisher  = {Keele European Parties Research Unit, Working Paper 19},
    url = {http://www.keele.ac.uk/media/keeleuniversity/group/kepru/KEPRU
    WP 19.pdf}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter. Political Opportunity Structures and the Success of the Extreme Right. http://www.politik.uni-mainz.de/kai.arzheimer/Lehre-EuroRex/Arzheimer-Carter.pdf2003.
    [BibTeX]
    @Book{ arzheimer-carter-2003b,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai and Carter, Elisabeth},
    year = {2003},
    title = {Political Opportunity Structures and the Success of the
    Extreme Right},
    address  = {http://www.politik.uni-mainz.de/kai.arzheimer/Lehre-EuroRex/Arzheimer-Carter.pdf}
    }

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Markus Klein. “Liberalismus, Rechtsradikalismus und Rechtspopulismus in Deutschland und Österreich. Bestandsaufnahmen und Zukunftsszenarien.” Wahlen und politische Einstellungen in Deutschland und Österreich. Eds. Plasser, Fritz, Oscar W. Gabriel, Jürgen W. Falter, and Peter Ulram. Frankfurt/Main: Lang, 1999. 31-63.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF] [HTML]
    @InCollection{ arzheimer-klein-1999b,
    author  = {Arzheimer, Kai and Klein, Markus},
    title = {Liberalismus, Rechtsradikalismus und Rechtspopulismus in
    Deutschland und {\"O}sterreich. Bestandsaufnahmen und
    Zukunftsszenarien},
    booktitle  = {Wahlen und politische Einstellungen in Deutschland und
    {\"O}sterreich},
    pages = {31--63},
    publisher  = {Lang},
    year = 1999,
    url = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/fpoe/fpoe.pdf},
    html = {http://www.kai-arzheimer.com/paper/liberalismus-rechtsradikalismus-und-rechtspopulismus-deutschland-und-osterreich/}
    ,
    editor  = {Plasser, Fritz and Gabriel, Oscar W. and Falter,
    J{\"u}rgen W. and Ulram, Peter},
    address  = {Frankfurt/Main}
    }

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